Connecting with Nature in the Digital Age: Intentions of Adolescents in California Urban Areas
Keywords:Theory of Planned Behavior, underrepresented youth, outdoor recreation, natural areas, social media marketing
AbstractAutomated devices dominate the daily experience for most people in the United States, and for many, nature offers a respite ripe with well-documented emotional, psychological, and physical benefits. However, opportunities with and access to open spaces can be limited by structural barriers that often create limits to engagement by people living in urban areas. A first stage of this project initiated with listening sessions and workshops with youth in urban and rural settings in southern and central California as a means of crafting effective marketing strategies designed by youth to engage young people of color with nature and open spaces. The second stage, reported here, was implemented to examine the effects of race/ethnicity and social media video messaging on Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) dimensions. Using a quasi-experimental design, panels of urban youth aged 12-16 in four California cities participated in an online panel survey. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three themed message groups generated from the content themes developed by youth during the workshops (escape and unplug, connect with family and friends, or discover and adventure) or a control group. The questionnaire included 11 items related to the TPB. Separate 4x4 ANOVAs with race/ethnicity and the treatments/control group as the independent variables and TPB dimensions as the dependent variables revealed an interaction effect for one perceived behavioral control item. There were also significant differences by race/ethnicity on all four TPB dimensions. Mean scores of the respondents who watched one of the three videos were higher than the control group for all 11 TPB items measured. TPB item scores among White and Black respondents were typically higher than scores for Asian and Latinx respondents. Results of a hierarchical regression analysis with race/ethnicity, treatments/control group, perceived behavioral control, attitudes, and social norms as the independent variables and behavioral intentions as the dependent variable suggested that attitudes and social norms were the strongest predictors of behavioral intentions. The results add significant value in the practical application of the intersection between automated devices and social media marketing for engaging underrepresented groups in the digital age. Subscribe to JPRA
Sagamore Publishing LLC (hereinafter the “Copyright Owner”)
Journal Publishing Copyright Agreement for Authors
PLEASE REVIEW OUR POLICIES AND THE PUBLISHING AGREEMENT, AND INDICATE YOUR ACCEPTANCE OF THE TERMS BY CHECKING THE ‘AGREE TO THE TERMS OF THIS COPYRIGHT NOTICE’ CHECKBOX BELOW.
I understand that by submitting an article to Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, I am granting the copyright to the article submitted for consideration for publication in Journal of Park and Recreation Administration to the Copyright Owner. If after consideration of the Editor of the Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, the article is not accepted for publication, all copyright covered under this agreement will be automatically returned to the Author(s).
THE PUBLISHING AGREEMENT
Assignment of Copyright
I hereby assign to the Copyright Owner the copyright in the manuscript I am submitting in this online procedure and any tables, illustrations or other material submitted for publication as part of the manuscript in all forms and media (whether now known or later developed), throughout the world, in all languages, for the full term of copyright, effective when the article is accepted for publication.
Reversion of Rights
Articles may sometimes be accepted for publication but later be rejected in the publication process, even in some cases after public posting in “Articles in Press” form, in which case all rights will revert to the Author.
Retention of Rights for Scholarly Purposes
I understand that I retain or am hereby granted the Retained Rights. The Retained Rights include the right to use the Preprint, Accepted Manuscript, and the Published Journal Article for Personal Use and Internal Institutional Use.
All journal material is under a 12 month embargo. Authors who would like to have their articles available as open access should contact Sagamore-Venture for further information.
In the case of the Accepted Manuscript and the Published Journal Article, the Retained Rights exclude Commercial Use, other than use by the author in a subsequent compilation of the author’s works or to extend the Article to book length form or re-use by the author of portions or excerpts in other works.
Published Journal Article: the author may share a link to the formal publication through the relevant DOI.
- The Article I have submitted to the journal for review is original, has been written by the stated author(s) and has not been published elsewhere.
- The Article was not submitted for review to another journal while under review by this journal and will not be submitted to any other journal.
- The Article contains no libelous or other unlawful statements and does not contain any materials that violate any personal or proprietary rights of any other person or entity.
- I have obtained written permission from copyright owners for any excerpts from copyrighted works that are included and have credited the sources in the Article.
- If the Article was prepared jointly with other authors, I have informed the co-author(s) of the terms of this Journal Publishing Agreement and that I am signing on their behalf as their agent, and I am authorized to do so.