Preteaching Words to Facilitate an Instructional Level in Reading with a Student with a Specific Learning Disability in Reading


  • Matthew K Burns University of Missouri
  • McKinzie D. Duesenberg-Marshall University of Missouri
  • Elizabeth M. McCollom University of Missouri
  • Nikita McCree University of Missouri
  • Heba Z. Abdelnaby University of Missouri



Preteaching, instructional level, incremental rehearsal


An appropriate level of challenge for reading, called the instructional level, consists of 93% to 97% known words within the text. The current study examined if an instructional level could be facilitated by preteaching words to a male second grade student identified with a learning disability in reading. Key and high-frequency words were pretaught before reading passages, which made up the experimental condition in a single-subject reversal design. A baseline condition was also used in which the child read from similar passages without preteaching words. Results suggested that preteaching the words led to a percentage of known words that fell within the instructional level, and increased fluent reading of the experimental passages. Implications for practice and suggestions for future research are included.

Author Biography

Matthew K Burns, University of Missouri

Associate Dean for Research and Professor of Educational, School, and Counseling Psychology.