Trained Peer Tutors in Adapted Physical Education Class


  • Chelsey Sands
  • Pamela Hodges Kulinna
  • Hans van der Mars
  • Leopoldo Dorantes


inclusion, mentors, schools, disabilities


Literature on inclusion and peer tutoring framed this study, which aimed to determine students’ time on-task and perceptions when a peer tutor was present in Adapted Physical Education classes. Participants included eight middle school (grades 6-8) students with disabilities and eight typically developing seventh and eighth grade peers. Trained peers assisted their partner during the entire class. The study was a mixed-method (ABA) design with time on-task, interval video recordings, classroom observations, informal interviews, and surveys. Results for time on-task had high inter-rater observer agreement and differences across three time points including baseline, intervention, and follow-up. Students with disabilities displayed significantly increased time on-task when peer tutors were present. Additionally, both peer groups reported positive experiences.

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