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Middle School Students’ Attitudes Toward Including Students with Disabilities in an Invasion Game Basketball Unit

Ann-Catherine Sullivan, Donna L. Wolf, Rebecca J. Berkowitz


The purpose of this study was to provide insight into the attitudes of middle school students toward participation in a wheelchair basketball unit implementing the teaching games for understanding instructional model. Fifty-six seventh grade students completed a modified Block’s CAIPE-R Inventory. Focus groups were conducted and analyzed using Grounded Theory and Constant Comparative methods. Participants experience manipulating a wheelchair may have increased their attitude toward allowing sport specific modifications. The participants, suggested teaching the unit again to provide others an opportunity to equalize play for students with physical disabilities as well as high-, medium-, and low-skilled students. In conclusion, implementation of reverse inclusion could be a viable option for addressing diversity within a general physical education setting.

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Invasion games; disabilities; wheelchair; contact theory; reverse inclusion; teaching games for understanding (TGFU)

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