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Constraints Model for Improving Motor Skills in Children with CHARGE Syndrome

Elizabeth A. Foster, Lauren J. Lieberman, Melanie Perreault, Pamela A. Haibach-Beach


CHARGE syndrome is a rare genetic disorder that arises during early fetal development and affects multiple organ systems. The acronym “CHARGE” comes from some of the more common features: coloboma, heart defects, atresia of the choanae (i.e., blocked nasal cavity), retardation of growth and development, genital underdevelopment, and ear abnormalities. Individual factors contribute to motor skill delays in children with CHARGE syndrome, including hypotonia (i.e., muscle weakness), balance problems, and vision loss. This article will examine the use of a constraints model (Newell, 1984) to develop and improve motor skills, by modifying the task and environment. 

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CHARGE syndrome; visual impairment; physical activity; dynamic systems

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