Technology Preparation for Preservice Physical Education Teachers: A Credit Hour Analysis


  • Ashley Phelps Department of Health, Exercise, & Sports Sciences, University of New Mexico
  • Sean Fullerton Department of Health, Exercise, & Sports Sciences, University of New Mexico



Technology, Carnegie Classifications, preservice physical education teachers, TPACK, PETE, credit hours


Technological knowledge, technological content knowledge), and technological pedagogical knowledge is swiftly becoming a popular topic in the field of physical education teacher education (PETE). The Initial PETE Standards set forth by SHAPE America indicate that preservice physical education teachers (PPETs) should be taught how to use and teach with technology in their K–12 gymnasiums. However, research has indicated that PPETs are not being adequately prepared to teach with technology. This is a major concern seeing as the K–12 student population is becoming more technologically advanced. Additionally, the COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the need for quality and equitable learning and instruction to occur through online platforms. The purpose of this study was to examine the number of credit hours dedicated to technology across the undergraduate curriculum of PPETs. To help frame the study, we used the 2018 Carnegie Classifications as a guide to see whether there were differences in technology credit hour allocation across varying colleges and universities in the United States. In addition to using the Carnegie Classifications, we broke up technology credit hours into three categories. For example, technology credit hours were offered during either the general education, the professional education, and/or the PETE major phase. Results from a paired-samples t test, an analysis of variance, and a multivariate analysis of variance indicated that PPETs take more technology credit hours during the professional education phase of their undergraduate curriculum than during the PETE major phase. Additionally, PPETs enrolled in doctoral institutions take more technology credit hours in the PETE major phase than PPETs enrolled in baccalaureate institutions. The incorporation of technology into PETE coursework, field experiences, and student teaching practicums will better prepare PPETs to deliver quality physical education through online interfaces.