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Active Involvement and Accuracy of Calls of Novice Referees During a Season of Sport Education

Todd Layne, Peter Hastie



 Becoming an elite official of any sport takes time and experience. Fortunately, an opportunity exists for learning the role of a referee at an earlier time. The role of a referee may be taught to students in physical education classes through the sport education pedagogical model. Previous research of sport education has shown that young students enjoy taking officiating roles, but only one has served to quantify the quality of their performance. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to examine the officiating ability of students participating in a sport education season for the first time as they learn the role of a referee. Forty fourth grade students participated in the study. An evaluation of students' attentiveness and involvement in the role as a referee and an examination of the accuracy of calls the referees made were completed. A one-way ANOVA with two levels was used to analyze the percentage of involvement of referees and the percentage of referee success and referee opportunities. Results indicated a significant increase with active involvement, F(1, 5) = 39.85, p = .001, η2 = .889, and referee success, F(1, 5) = 26.39, p = .004, η2 = .841, as students progressed from the formal competition to the postseason. No significant difference was found with referee opportunities, F(1, 5) = 0.01, p = .913, η2 = .003. The increase in active involvement and officiating success and the consistency in referee opportunities indicates that over time the ability to officiate games accurately may increase. 


sport education; primary students; officiating

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