Task Design and Skill Level Perceptions of Middle School Students Toward Competition in Dance-Related Active Gaming


  • Eve Bernstein Queens College, City University of New York
  • Anne Gibbone Adelphi University
  • Paul Rukavina Adelphi University




technology, physical education, active gaming, middle school


In this study, we drew upon McCaughtry, Tischler, and Flory's (2008) reconceptualized ecological framework to examine middle school students' perceptions (N = 391) of competition in physical education, specifically after participating in noncompetitive and competitive active gaming (AG) sessions. Chi-square tests of independence were computed on students' open-ended questionnaire responses. In terms of the AG sessions, students enjoyed AG and felt happy regardless of the task structure; however, what they liked and disliked about the AG tasks varied according to skill. Lower skilled students in the noncompetitive situation focused on success more frequently and in the competitive situations reported liking task elements and competition less frequently than did other skill groups. Discussion was focused on improvements in equipment features and task design to enhance students' experience.