Measuring Student Motivation in High School Physical Education: Development and Validation of Two Self-Report Questionnaires

Authors

  • Lauren Sulz University of Alberta
  • Viviene Temple University of Victoria
  • Sandra Gibbons University of Victoria

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.18666/TPE-2016-V73-I3-6370

Keywords:

self-determination, physical education, validity, reliability, motivation

Abstract

The aim of this research was to develop measures to provide valid and reliable representation of the motivational states and psychological needs proposed by the self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985, 2000) within a physical education context. Based on theoretical underpinnings of self-determination theory, two questionnaires were developed to measure students’ motivation and psychological need satisfaction in high school physical education: (a) the Physical Education Motivation Scale (PEMS) and (b) the Physical Education Autonomy, Relatedness, Competence Scale (PE-ARCS). Validity and reliability concerning the scales were examined. Exploratory factor analysis supported the validity and test–retest reliability of a 3-factor, 9-item solution for PEMS and a 3-factor, 12-item solution for PE-ARCS. The results provide evidence supporting the validity and reliability of PEMS and PE-ARCS as promising physical education-specific measures of motivation developed within the framework of self-determination theory. 

Author Biographies

Lauren Sulz, University of Alberta

Assistant Professor

Faculty of Education

Department of Secondary Education

Viviene Temple, University of Victoria

Professor

School of Exercise Science, Physical and Health Education

Sandra Gibbons, University of Victoria

Professor

School of Exercise Science, Physical and Health Education

Published

2016-10-12

Issue

Section

Articles