Youth Sport Development Through Soccer: An Evaluation of an After-School Program Using the TPSR Model


  • Mark Cryan Elon University
  • Thomas Martinek University of North Carolina Greensboro



social responsibility, Latino youth, youth sport, fidelity, PSRQ


The Soccer Coaching Club program used the Teaching Personal and Social Responsibility (TPSR) model in an after-school soccer program for sixth grade boys between 11 and 12 years old in a local middle school. Soccer, as the featured physical activity, provided the “hook” for regular attendance. Desired outcomes included improved self-control, respect, and cooperation with others. Research efforts included formative program evaluation, focusing on fidelity to the TPSR model, and summative evaluations of immediate effects on participant understanding of TPSR concepts and participant behavior as part of the program evaluation. The population was of particular interest. The program participants were predominantly Latino, a population for which the TPSR model has not been extensively researched. A mixed methods approach was used, and data were gathered through a validated survey instrument, a program narrative, and postprogram interview with the participants’ classroom teachers.Program evaluation using the two-factor model of analysis of the survey data yielded statistically significant improvements in the factor of social responsibility, although no statistically significant change was measured in the second area, personal responsibility. The observational data including the program narrative and the data gathered through field notes provided evidence of frequent use of the strategies associated with fidelity in implementing a TPSR program and participant behaviors consistent with TPSR learning. The postprogram interview with the participants’ classroom teachers yielded observations that indicated some element of transference of program principles to the classroom, as well as strong support for the program’s return, another indicator of a successfully executed program. 

Author Biography

Mark Cryan, Elon University

Sport & Event Management DepartmentAssistant Professor