Importance of Bonding in Middle School Intramural Sports Participation: Psychosocial Outcomes Based on Gender and Grade-Level Differences


  • Joy Pantzer
  • Catherine E. Dorwart North Carolina Central University
  • Andrea Woodson-Smith



psychosocial outcomes, intramural sports, psychological benefits, social benefits, school connectedness, middle school


This study aimed to measure perceived psychosocial outcomes of middle school intramural participants in psychological development, social development, and school connectedness and to identify differences between gender and grade level. One hundred four middle school students were surveyed via a modified version of the Social Outcomes questionnaire. Data revealed that students perceived the highest degrees of outcomes in the areas of bonding with teammates, improving ability to work with a team, and increased feelings of belonging at school. ANOVAs and t tests showed whether there were significant differences between groups based on grade level. No differences were found based on gender. Results from this exploratory study support the importance of providing inclusive intramural programs for middle school students that enhance not only physical health, but also psychological and social health. Subscribe to TPE

Author Biography

Catherine E. Dorwart, North Carolina Central University

Department of Physical Education and RecreationAssistant Professor