Citation and Reference List Examples

• In-text citations include the doi and full url:

◦ All references to books, bulletins, and articles must be identified in the text by last name of author, year of publication, and where appropriate, pagination. Depending on construction of the sentence, the citation will appear as Wise (2020) or (Wise, 2020). Specify subsequent citations of the same source in the same way as the first. However, within a paragraph, do not include the year in subsequent references to the original work as long as the study cannot be confused with other studies in the paragraph or the manuscript.

◦ For direct quotations, pagination follows the year of publication, separated by a comma (e.g., Wise, 2020, p. 64).

◦ If an author has more than one citation in the same year, distinguish the citations using letters (a, b, c, etc.) attached to the year in the text and the reference list (Stumbo, 2013a, 2013b).

◦ When a work has one or two authors, include author name(s) in every citation in the text. When a work has three or more authors include only the name of the first author plus “et al.” in every citation, including the first citation, unless this would cause ambiguity (e.g., Hawkins et al., 2018).

◦ For a group authorship, identify the author with the abbreviation in the first citation with the year (e.g., American Therapeutic Recreation Association [ATRA], 2017); in subsequent citations only the abbreviation and year (ATRA, 2017).

◦ Enclose a series of references within parentheses, separated by semicolons in alphabetical order (Carter et al., 2017; Craig, 2017; Ross & Snethen, 2017; Stumbo, Zahl et al., 2013; Wilder et al., 2017)


• List of references in the text alphabetically on a separate page at the end of the manuscript. Provide the surnames and initials for up to an including 20 authors. When there are 21 or more authors, include the first 19 authors’ names, insert an ellipsis (…) and then add the final author’s name. For books do not include publisher location.

◦ Hawkins, B. L., Craig, P. J., & Anderson, L. (2018). Examining the educational requirements for entry-level RT/TR practice: The process and recommendations of the ATRA Higher Education Task Force [Special issue ATRA Annual]. Therapeutic Recreation Journal, 52(4), 410-418. 10.18666/TRJ-2018-V52-I4-9164.

◦ Ross, J. E., & Snethen, G. (2017). Service trends in therapeutic recreation. In N. J. Stumbo, B. D. Wolfe, & S. Pegg (Eds.), Professional issues in Therapeutic Recreation: On competence and outcomes (3rd ed., pp. 233-256). Sagamore-Venture Publishing LLC.


For gray literature i.e. government reports, research reports, codes of ethics:


• U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. (2014). Healthy people 2020, topics & objectives, disability and health. objectives/topic/disability-and-health

• Include the complete url, do not use a period; retrieval date may or may not be needed see 7th ed. APA, p. 290, 9.16.

• American Therapeutic Recreation Association. (2009). Code of ethics.

• List the complete group author name, and when publisher do not list location or repeat group author name.


Practice Perspectives Submission Details


The manuscript should describe any of the following:


• one or more unique practice applications of the TR/RT process with participants (assessment, planning, implementation, evaluation, documentation) or programs;

• units of practice such as implementing a protocol or therapeutic modality; and/or

• the experience of participants, therapists, families, or colleagues with TR/RT, program design or innovation, ethical dilemmas, or management strategies.


Case reports should be written in past tense; personal narratives should be written in the first or third person appropriate to the genre (interview, letter, memoir, journal, chronology, autobiographical portrait). The recommended length for a case report or personal narrative is 10 to 15 pages, inclusive. Required components for each manuscript formatted in APA style include


• meta data (title, abstract, key words, author information, contact of primary author

• case report or personal narrative (see content guidelines below),

• references, and

• tables and figures (high-resolution digital photographs will be accepted as figures).


Case Report Content


A. Introducing the Case Report


This section sets the stage, helping the reader understand the conceptual basis of the case.

• Begin with biographical, demographic, or situational facts that orient the reader to a specific individual or practice scenario

• Maintain confidentiality in presenting facts by using a participant or agency pseudonym or other mock identification.

• For reports about individuals, include (a) age (e.g., chronological/mental age estimation), (b) gender, (c) diagnosis/prognosis and relevant clinical background information that is needed to fully understand the report (e.g., relevant medications, functional levels, goals, or interdisciplinary and/or TR/RT interventions), (d) facility type (e.g., for-profit, SNF, ICF, long-term care facility), and (e) length of stay. For reports about group interventions, protocols, or other practice contexts that impact clients (e.g., strategic planning, quality improvement activity), explain the relevance to TR/RT with basic introductory definitions and explanations.


B. Content of the Case Report


This section should present content with substance.

• Include adequate information to trace the TR/RT process through the course of the case (i.e., assessment, planning, implementation, evaluation, documentation).

• Clearly delineate the context of an intervention, protocol, or administrative strategy, revealing how and why it was chosen and whether it yielded results in TR/RT practice.


C. Author's Comments to Conclude the Case Report


This section should summarize the content with clinical or personal commentary, reflections, critique, and/or ideas for the future.

• Avoid sentimentality in favor of new or unusual insight, sound integration with practice, or logical argument.

• Conclude with real life-implications for TR/RT practice.


Personal Narrative Content


A. Introducing the Personal Narrative: This section introduces a practice-related experience or perspective.

• Begin with a statement of the narrative's purpose (e.g., to recount a revealing story of practice, to illustrate a practice idea anecdotally or with scenarios, or to explain a process).

• Exercise the author's choice to either (a) maintain confidentiality of identity to provide a level of comfort and anonymity to share the author's experience or (b) purposely reveal identity as a way to verify author's subjective experience.

B. Content of the Personal Narrative: This section elicits the reader's understanding of TR/RT-related practice and how participants, therapists, administrators, and others experience it, by conveying distinct feelings and thoughts about it.

• Relay vivid details (by describing physical environments or features, behaviors, processes, or practice settings) to draw the reader into the experience and authenticate the author's firsthand knowledge.

• Avoid sentimentality in place of compelling storytelling as a context for deeper understanding of a participant's perspective, a therapist's perspective, or the perspective of any party involved in the narrative.

• Uncover and reveal inaccessible, paradoxical, or taken for granted aspects of practice by writing about an authentic experience using real-life examples such as images, scripts, letter writing, or diary entries.

• Coherently recount practice-related experience as an ordered sequence by combining and balancing showing (in dialogue, scenarios, or procedural steps) with telling (by explanation of an event's significance) so that the importance of the experience shows for the reader and raises ethical or moral sensitivity regarding practice.

C. Author's Comments to Conclude the Personal Narrative: This section should move the reader to reflect and respond to practice in new ways. Conclude with a retrospective finale to interpret the author's experiences connected to practice.

References. As part of some case reports or personal narratives, references may help to deepen the reader's focus on the content of a practice perspective. References may include published literature sources, personal interviews or communication, observations, or unpublished material relevant to the article.

Tables and figures. As part of some case reports or personal narratives, tables or figures might illustrate theory or practice application. Tables and figures are camera-ready submissions formatted in APA style.


Intervention Protocols Submission Details


Manuscript Preparation

The intervention protocol guidelines should include the following content:

A. Introducing the Intervention Protocol

This section sets the stage, so the reader understands the conceptual basis of the protocol by describing the client population for whom the protocol is developed, the facility type, and the typical course of recreational therapy intervention for the target client population. Authors must maintain confidentiality in presenting facts by using client(s) or agency pseudonym or other mock identification.

B. Theoretical and Evidence-based Foundations

This section should present content with substance by defining the theoretical and evidence-based foundations for recreational therapy services, client diagnostic area, and intervention area.

C. Client and Intervention Protocol Background

Define and describe the client(s) involved in the intervention protocol. Define the purpose, structure, and format of the intervention protocol including:

• Purpose

• Entrance and exit requirements for client involvement in the protocol

• Individual or group

• Frequency and duration of intervention sessions

• Safety considerations, facility and equipment requirements

• Methods of implementation

• Client outcomes

D. Intervention Protocol Implementation

This section describes the intervention protocol within the therapeutic recreation process of assessment, planning, implementation, evaluation, and documentation.

Assessment: describing how clients are assessed for placement in the intervention protocol.

Planning: describing how client goals were determined, referrals, coordination and/or collaboration with treatment team professionals, etc.

Implementation: describing the exact sequence and execution of the intervention protocol with observations and data on each session content and process.

Evaluation: describing an appraisal of how the clients responded to the planned intervention, measurement of client outcomes, adaptations and revisions of the protocol, and observed unanticipated positive and negative outcomes of the implemented intervention protocol.

Documentation: describing how the client outcomes from the intervention are documented.

E. Author Comments

This section should summarize the content with clinical or personal commentary, reflections, critique, and/or ideas for the future by providing new or unusual insights, sound integration with practice or logical argument, and concluding with real life implications for recreational therapy practice.

F. References

All references cited in the manuscript should be appropriately referenced according to APA style (7th edition). References may include published literature sources, personal interviews or communication, observations, or unpublished material relevant to the article.

G. Tables and Figures

As part of some protocol interventions, tables or figures might illustrate theory or practice application. Tables and figures are camera-ready submissions formatted in APA style.

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