Research into Practice: Feature Article Sport Motivation Questionnaire for Persons with Mental Retardation


  • Deborah R. Shapiro
  • Joonkoo Yun


Special Olympics, Cognitive Impairment, Measurement


This study investigated the psychometric properties of a Sport Motivation Questionnaire (SMQ) for persons with mental retardation. The SMQ was administered to 147 Special Olympics athletes, aged 21-70 years. The SMQ contained 14 paired participation motives. Content experts and principle component factor analysis evaluated validity evidence of the SMQ. Five factors were extracted including (a) task orientation, (b) social integration, (c) fitness, (d) team orientation, and (e) social affective for 61% of the total variance. Reliability evidence was examined by test-retest and internal consistency. Test-retest reliability using intraclass correlation ranged from .50 to .98. Internal consistency of the SMQ employing Chronbach's alpha ranged from .50 to .98. Results provide preliminary support for the SMQ for persons with MR.





Research into Practice