Effects of a Token Economy System within the Context of Cooperative Games on Social Behaviors of Adolescents with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders


  • Brent D. Wolfe
  • John Dattilo
  • David L. Gast


Token Economy, Cooperative Games, Adolescents, Single-Subject Research, Therapeutic Recreation


A single subject A-B1-BC1-B2-BC2 design was used to examine effects of a cooperative games and token economy program on pro-social (statements of encouragement, statements of praise, statements of appreciation, hand shakes, or high fives) and anti-social behaviors (swearing, threatening physical harm, calling peers names, hitting or pushing) of three adolescents with emotional and behavioral disorders. Results are reported as group means. With the introduction of cooperative games, behaviors remained stable and unchanged. When a token economy system was introduced there was an immediate increase in the number of pro-social behaviors. Results for pro-social behaviors were replicated across conditions. Anti-social behaviors remained virtually non-existent throughout the study. Limitations and implications for research and practice are discussed.





Research Papers