Intraindividual Variation in the Subjective Experiences of Older Adults Residing in a Nursing Home


  • Judith E. Voelkl
  • Mary A. Mathieu


Subjective leisure experience, life-span development, intraindividual variability, P-technique, older adults


Therapeutic recreation professionals are charged with designing services to enhance the subjective leisure experiences of clients (Iso-Ahola, 1988; Witt & Ellis, 1989). Researchers have begun to examine the effects of therapeutic recreation services on clients' subjective leisure experiences. Little descriptive research, however, has been done to fully examine these experiences among individuals with disabilities. More specifically, little is known about the variability that exists within an individual's subjective leisure experiences. Stemming from a life-span developmental psychology perspective, the purpose of the present study was to examine the intraindividual variability in the subjective leisure experiences of three older adults using P-technique factor analysis (Baltes, Reese, & Lipsitt, 1980; Jones & Nesselroade, 1990; Nesselroade & Ford, 1985). The results indicate that unique patterns of variability exist in the subjective aspects of leisure within an individual. Implications and future research are discussed.