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Factor Influencing Staff Inclusion of Youth with Disabilities in After-School Programs

Jennifer Taylor, Joonkoo Yun


The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing staff inclusion of youth with disabilities in physical activity during after-school programs. One hundred and twenty participants completed the Inclusion in After-School Programs Staff Survey (IAPSS). The results of a path analysis indicated that 53% of staffs’ intention to include youth with disabilities can be explained by attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control, while 8% of behavior is explained by staffs’ intention. Subjective norm was the strongest predictor for the participants’ intention to include children with disabilities in their programs. The strength of the relationship from subjective norms to intention indicates that the expectations of others are an important factor in the inclusion of children with disabilities in after-school programs. Programs wanting to promote the inclusion of youth with disabilities should be clear in presenting the program philosophy and/or their partnering organization’s philosophy toward inclusion.


Theory of Planned Behavior; inclusion; out of school time; intention; physical activity

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