The Reliability and Validity of the Reality Comprehension Clock Test (RCCT) with a Hispanic Population


  • Susan M. Cleghorn
  • Ruthie Kucharewski
  • Roy H. Olsson Jr
  • Claudia Leiras
  • Carla A. Crockett
  • Jenny R. Gill
  • Amanda J. Pettit
  • Nancy Powell
  • Mihaela Friedlmeier


Assessment, cognition, Hispanic, Reality Comprehension Clock Test, older adults


The purpose of this quantitative investigation was to examine the validity and reliability of the nonverbal method of administering the Reality Comprehension Clock Test (RCCT) with a Hispanic population. This method of administering the RCCT offers a standardized method for recreation therapists to use when testing the cognitive level of patients who speak a different language. The study included 19 participants who were Hispanic and 60 years or older. Each participant completed the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) once and the RCCT twice within an interval of 7-14 days between test administrations. The results revealed significant test-retest reliability for the RCCT. Internal consistency was significant, but lower than previous studies. Inter-rater reliability was found to be significant. A Pearson r correlation indicated moderate concurrent validity between the MMSE and the RCCT. Unlike the MMSE which requires patients to recall and verbally answer questions the RCCT is a performance assessment tool which requires the patient to listen to instructions and perform the necessary functions required. By assessing an individual’s cognitive functioning abilities a recreation therapist can identify the individual’s strengths and select appropriate interventions to build on the individual’s strengths.





Research Papers