Effects of Leisure Education Using Different Leadership Styles on Adults With Mental Retardation
Keywords:Leisure Education, Democratic Leadership, Authoritarian Leadership, Choice, Mental Retardation, Single-subject Research
AbstractOne way to improve the quality of life for people with disabilities is to encourage their sense of control during participation in recreation activities. Control can be encouraged through systematic attempts at leisure education and the provision of choices during recreation participation. Thirty-nine adults with mental retardation participated in an investigation containing four experimental phases: (a) baseline-recreation participation activities, (b)treatment-all participants received the same leisure education program, half with an authoritarian leadership style, halfwith a democratic, (c) return to baseline, and (d) return to the original treatment. This investigation was initiated to determine if activity involvement would be higher during the leisure education phases and in the democratic group. Sessions lasted 30 minutes each day for eight weeks and were videotaped for observation and data recording. An analysis of variance for repeated measures was administered to analyze within-group (leisure education) and between-group (leadership style) differences. There appeared to be limited differences between leadership styles; however, a significant difference between recreation participation and leisure education was demonstrated. Subjects' activity involvement significantly increased from the first phase to the second, remained at the higher level throughout the third, and increased slightly during the fourth phase.
Sagamore Publishing LLC (hereinafter the “Copyright Owner”)
Journal Publishing Copyright Agreement for Authors
PLEASE REVIEW OUR POLICIES AND THE PUBLISHING AGREEMENT, AND INDICATE YOUR ACCEPTANCE OF THE TERMS BY CHECKING THE ‘AGREE TO THE TERMS OF THIS COPYRIGHT NOTICE’ CHECKBOX BELOW.
I understand that by submitting an article to Therapeutic Recreation Journal, I am granting the copyright to the article submitted for consideration for publication in Therapeutic Recreation Journal to the Copyright Owner. If after consideration of the Editor of the Therapeutic Recreation Journal, the article is not accepted for publication, all copyright covered under this agreement will be automatically returned to the Author(s).
THE PUBLISHING AGREEMENT
Assignment of Copyright
I hereby assign to the Copyright Owner the copyright in the manuscript I am submitting in this online procedure and any tables, illustrations or other material submitted for publication as part of the manuscript in all forms and media (whether now known or later developed), throughout the world, in all languages, for the full term of copyright, effective when the article is accepted for publication.
Reversion of Rights
Articles may sometimes be accepted for publication but later be rejected in the publication process, even in some cases after public posting in “Articles in Press” form, in which case all rights will revert to the Author.
Retention of Rights for Scholarly Purposes
I understand that I retain or am hereby granted the Retained Rights. The Retained Rights include the right to use the Preprint, Accepted Manuscript, and the Published Journal Article for Personal Use and Internal Institutional Use.
All journal material is under a 12 month embargo. Authors who would like to have their articles available as open access should contact Sagamore-Venture for further information.
In the case of the Accepted Manuscript and the Published Journal Article, the Retained Rights exclude Commercial Use, other than use by the author in a subsequent compilation of the author’s works or to extend the Article to book length form or re-use by the author of portions or excerpts in other works.
Published Journal Article: the author may share a link to the formal publication through the relevant DOI.
- The Article I have submitted to the journal for review is original, has been written by the stated author(s) and has not been published elsewhere.
- The Article was not submitted for review to another journal while under review by this journal and will not be submitted to any other journal.
- The Article contains no libelous or other unlawful statements and does not contain any materials that violate any personal or proprietary rights of any other person or entity.
- I have obtained written permission from copyright owners for any excerpts from copyrighted works that are included and have credited the sources in the Article.
- If the Article was prepared jointly with other authors, I have informed the co-author(s) of the terms of this Journal Publishing Agreement and that I am signing on their behalf as their agent, and I am authorized to do so.