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Urinary Incontinence in Women: Implications for Therapeutic Recreation

Kathleen Sheldon, Linda Caldwell


This paper presents a review of the literature concerning the causes and effects of urinary incontinence (VI) in community-dwelling mid-life and older women. Half of all women will experience incontinence at some time in their lives; one-third of all women will have ongoing bladder control problems. The incidence of urinary incontinence increases as women age and often leads to self-isolation. The primary areas of therapeutic recreation involvement relate to social psychological domains. Suggestions for therapeutic recreation interventions include helping an individual be in charge of her life and recreational activities providing leisure education services, reducing social isolation, reducing stigma associated with VI, and contributing to treatment goals. Specific suggestions are offered for research on the relationship between urinary incontinence and therapeutic recreation.


Urinary Incontinence; Bladder Control; Women; Therapeutic Recreation; Leisure Education

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