Development, Reliability and Preliminary Validation of a Brief Leisure Rating Scale


  • Gary D. Ellis
  • Sharon Niles


Assessment, Learned Helplessness, Perceived Freedom, Therapeutic Recreation, Measurement, Rating Scales


This article describes a study which was designed to produce a "Brief Leisure Rating Scale" (BLRS) to be used for the assessment of clients' perceived helplessness in leisure. The scale is designed to be completed by a therapist or recreation leader after a period of exposure to the client. Data for determining the reliability and validity of the BLRS were obtained from leaders and participants in a summer playground program. Internal consistency reliability estimates were .93 and .95. In addition, evidence of validity was found and results suggested the possible need to refine "continuum" models of therapeutic recreation service.



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