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Community Integration: Showcasing the Evidence for Therapeutic Recreation Services

Norma J. Stumbo, Allison Wilder, Melissa Zahl, Dawn DeVries, Shane Pegg, Janell Greenwood, Jo-Ellen Ross


Community integration (CI) is an important aspect of therapeutic recreation services for many client groups. CI speaks to the full social, physical, and psychological presence of individuals with disabilities and/or illnesses in their communities, whether that may be their personal homes, group homes, halfway houses, or long-term care facilities. The benefits of CI are numerous and include physical, social, psychological, health, and quality of life related outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent research regarding CI for individuals with (a) cerebrovascular accidents and traumatic brain injury, (b) intellectual and/or developmental disabilities, (c) mental illnesses, and (d) spinal cord injuries, and for (e) aging individuals with chronic diseases and/or illnesses. Specific implications for therapeutic recreation practice from this research are highlighted.


community integration, cerebrovascular accident, traumatic brain injury, mental illness, intellectual and/or developmental disability, spinal cord injury, older adults with chronic conditions and/or illnesses, therapeutic recreation practice

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