Outdoor Adventure Programming for Individuals With Cognitive Disabilities Who Present Serious Accommodation Challenges


  • Leo McAvoy
  • John G. Smith
  • John E. Rynders


Outdoor Adventure, Serious Accommodation Challenges, Cognitive Disabilities


An outdoor adventure program was offered to 23 individuals with cognitive disabilities who presented serious accommodation challenges. Participants were accompanied by 23 support personnel, many of whom were group home staff, providing the capability of pair-wise response agreement. Assessment of outdoor recreation skills was done through a questionnaire on a pre-post basis; trip satisfaction was assessed through a post-trip questionnaire; and social/socialization development was assessed with a follow-up interview. Findings revealed that participants' outdoor skills, level of satisfaction and social/socialization abilities generally increased as a result of the outdoor experience. A set of programmatic strategies are offered as a means of supporting the participation of persons with cognitive disabilities who present serious accommodation challenges in an outdoor adventure program.





Research Papers