An Empowerment Theory Approach to Adventure Programming for Adults with Disabilities


  • Melissa Hough
  • Karen Paisley


Empowerment theory, psychological empowerment, control, adventure programming, adults with disabilities.


The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an empowerment process on psychological empowerment toward recreation and leisure for adults with disabilities in an adaptive adventure program. Research participants were a convenience sample (n = 14) of adults with disabilities registered for one of two 3-day dog-sledding trips. Using a single-factor, nested measures design, participants were involved in both treatment and control groups. This study employed two different analyses: a paired-sample t-test and hierarchical linear modeling (HLM). While this study did not demonstrate a significant treatment effect, the HLM analysis did suggest that empowerment may be a dispositional construct versus a situational construct. Implications for both practice and research are discussed.





Research Papers