Fukushi (Social Welfare) Recreation in Japan


  • Hiroko Murray
  • Yoshifumi Tajima Kobe University of Welfare
  • Tadaaki Wakui Kansai University
  • Takashi Wakano Solaputi Kid's Camp
  • Shinichi Nagata Northwest Missouri State University http://orcid.org/0000-0002-8805-880X




Curriculum, elderly care, fukushi recreation, Japan, longterm care insurance


Fukushi recreation is defined as recreation services that are provided in the context of fukushi (social welfare) services. The fukushi recreation worker certification emerged during 1970s and became the current fukushi recreation worker certification in 1990 through collaboration with the Japanese Certified Therapeutic Recreation Specialists (CTRS) returnees. Students enroll in the fukushi recreation worker training through correspondence education or through approved higher education institutions. It is possible to earn the certification within a year. Importantly, the number of fukushi recreation workers reached 10,224 in 2005; however, it has been declining significantly since. Recently, the Japanese government began supporting community-based programs through long-term care insurance. Increased funding is available for the community-based programs such as recreational activities; no other health care professions are currently trained to facilitate recreational activities.

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Author Biographies

Yoshifumi Tajima, Kobe University of Welfare

Full professor at Kobe University of Welfare

Tadaaki Wakui, Kansai University

Full professor at Kansai University

Takashi Wakano, Solaputi Kid's Camp

Director of Solaputi Kid's Camp





International Perspectives