Exploration of Quadratic Expressions through Multiple Representations for Students with Mathematics Difficulties


  • Tricia K. Strickland
  • Paula Maccini




The current study focuses on the effects of incorporating multiple visual representations on students conceptual understanding of quadratic expressions embedded within area word problems and students procedural fluency of transforming quadratic expressions in standard form to factored-form and vice versa. The intervention included the concrete-representation-abstract integration (CRA I) strategy and the use of a graphic organizer called the Box Method to support student performance when transitioning to using abstract notation only. A multiple-probe design across two groups that included five participants was utilized. The participants were five high school students identified as having mathematics difficulties, including three students with an identified learning disability. Results indicated that participants significantly improved their algebraic accuracy and maintained their skills over time. Further, participants reported the intervention was worth their time and they would recommend it to others.