Physical Educators’ Exergaming Integration Experiences, Attitudes, and Self-Efficacy Beliefs


  • Jennifer M. Krause University of Northern Colorado
  • Seth E. Jenny Slippery Rock University



active video gaming, Physical activity, technology, pedagogy


Exergaming technologies have emerged in physical education in recent years as an attempt at revitalizing physical activity levels among youth. Research on the effects of exergaming is increasing; however, there is no research on practicing physical education teachers’ implementation in the United States. Studies indicate that physical educators have low levels of confidence with regard to technology integration, particularly exergames. Due to exergaming technology’s potential impact, it is essential to understand the extent to which physical education teachers implement these technologies. Self-efficacy beliefs, influenced by prior experiences, are powerful motives of behavior. Thus, grounded in self-efficacy theory, this study investigated pedagogical exergaming experiences, attitudes, and self-efficacy beliefs of a nationwide sample of U.S. kindergarten through 12th-grade physical education teachers. Study participants included 402 in-service physical education teachers from 35 states who completed the online Physical Educators’ Exergaming Technology Integration, Attitudes, and Self-Efficacy Inventory. Participants reported moderate to high levels of attitude and self-efficacy beliefs, and Pearson correlation coefficients suggested strong, positive relationships between attitude and self-efficacy beliefs (r = .56, n = 402, p < .001) toward integrating exergaming technology in PE. Teachers’ prior exergaming integration into PE experiences was positive overall, yet limited because of barriers such as budget, equipment, training, and administrative support. Overall, results suggest that physical education teachers feel confident and have positive attitudes toward implementing exergaming in physical education, with self-efficacy regarding implementing exergaming in PE correlating strongest with prior successful mastery experience. 

Author Biographies

Jennifer M. Krause, University of Northern Colorado

Department of Kinesiology, Nutrition, and Dietetics

Associate Professor of Physical Education and Physical Activity Leadership

Seth E. Jenny, Slippery Rock University

Department of Exercise Science and Athletic Training

Assistant Professor