A Systematic Review of the Psychological, Social, and Educational Outcomes Associated With Participation in Wildland Recreational Activities
Keywords:wildland recreation, outcomes, environmental stewardship, personal development, outdoor recreation
AbstractParticipation in wildland recreation is associated with a range of individual-level outcomes. Although these outcomes have been extensively studied, few studies have systematically examined and summarized this empirical evidence. Therefore, the goals of this study include identifying (1) the breadth of individual-level outcomes associated with wildland recreation, (2) the setting and programmatic attributes that research suggests are driving these outcomes, and (3) the gaps in the peer-reviewed literature regarding the outcomes associated with wildland recreation. We systematically examined 235 articles published between 2000 and 2016 that evaluated the psychological, social, and educational outcomes associated with participation in wildland recreation. We identified 11 broad categories, the most common related to personal development (59%), pro-social behaviors (52%), mental restoration (42%), and environmental stewardship (36%). Results highlight gaps in our knowledge regarding outcomes and their potential causes. We conclude by discussing trends and implications for managers and future research. Subscribe to JOREL
Ardoin, N. M. (2006). Toward an interdisciplinary understanding of place: Lessons for environmental education. Canadian Journal of Environmental Education, 11(1), 112-126.
Bailey, A. W., & Kang, H. K. (2015). Modeling the impact of wilderness orientation programs on first-year academic success and life purpose. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, 15(3), 209-223.
Beeco, A. (2012). Programming nighttime activities in outdoor adventure programs. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, 4(2), 92-94.
Beeco, J. A., Hallo, J. C., Baldwin, E. D., & McQuire, F. A. (2011). An examination of the guided night hiking experience in parks and protected areas. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 29(4) 72-88.
Bell, B.J. & Holmes, M.R. (2011). Important factors leading to outdoor orientation program outcomes: A qualitative exploration of survey results. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education and Leadership, 3 (1) 26-39.
Betz, C. J., English, D., & Cordell, H.K. (1999). Outdoor Recreation Resources. In Outdoor Recreation in American Life. H. K. Cordell, editor. Sagamore Publishing: 39-182.
Boniface, M. (2006). The meaning of adventurous activities for ‘women in the outdoors’. Journal of Adventure Education & Outdoor Learning, 6(1), 9-24.
Boyes, M., & Potter, T. (2015). The application of recognition-primed decision theory to decisions made in an outdoor education context. Australian Journal of Outdoor Education, 18(1), 1-16.
Breunig, M. C., O'Connell, T. S., Todd, S., Anderson, L., & Young, A. (2010). The impact of outdoor pursuits on college students' perceived sense of community. Journal of Leisure Research, 42(4), 551-572.
Brown, P. J. and G. Haas (1980). "Wilderness Recreation Experiences: The Rawah Case." Journal of Leisure Research 12(3): 229-241.
Burch, W. R. (1964). Nature as Symbol and Expression in American Social Life: A Sociological Exploration. Sociology. Ann Arbor, University of Michigan: 482.
Coble, T. G., Selin, S. W., & Erickson, B. B. (2003). Hiking alone: Understanding fear, negotiation strategies and leisure experience. Journal of Leisure Research, 35(1), 1-22.
Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal performance. NY: Cambridge University Press.
Cumming, F., & Nash, M. (2015). An Australian perspective of a forest school: shaping a sense of place to support learning. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, 15(4), 296-309.
D'Amato, L. G., & Krasny, M. E. (2011). Outdoor adventure education: Applying transformative learning theory to understanding instrumental learning and personal growth in environmental education. The Journal of Environmental Education, 42(4), 237-254.
Daniel, B., Bobilya, A. J., Kalisch, K. R., & Lindley, B. (2010). Lessons from the outward bound solo: Intended transfer of learning. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, 2(1), 37-58.
Daniel, B. (2010). Canvas, Catalyst, Crucible: Exploring the Role of the Setting in the Wilderness Expedition Experience. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, 2(2), 133-136.
DeMares, R. (2000). Human peak experience triggered by encounters with cetaceans. Anthrozoos, 13, 89-103.
Denault, A. S., & Poulin, F. (2009). Intensity and breadth of participation in organized activities during the adolescent years: Multiple associations with youth outcomes. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38(9), 1199-1213.
Douglass, R. (1999). History of Outdoor Recreation and Nature-Based Tourism in the United States. Outdoor Recreation in American Life: A National Assessment of Demand and Supply Trends. H. K. Cordell. Athens, GA, Sagamore Publishing, 449.
Driver, B. L. (1976). Toward a better understanding of the social benefits of outdoor recreation participation, USDA:FS.
Driver, B. L., et al. (1999). Outdoor Recreation and Wilderness in America: Benefits and History. Outdoor Recreation in American Life. H. K. Cordell, Sagamore Publishing: 1-30.
Driver, B. L. and J. R. Bassett (1977). Problems of defining and measuring the preferences of river recreationists. River Recreation Management and Resources Symposium, Minneapolis, MN, USDA Forest Service.
Driver, B. L. and P. J. Brown (1986). Probable Personal Benefits of Outdoor Recreation. A Literature Review--President's Commission on Americans Outdoors. Washington, DC, U.S. Gov. Printing Office: 63-70.
Driver, B. L. and L. A. Johnson (1984). "A Pilot Study of the Perceived Long-Term Benefits of the Youth Conservation Corps." Journal of Environmental Education. 15(2): 3-11.
Duvall, J., & Kaplan, R. (2014). Enhancing the well-being of veterans using extended group-based nature recreation experiences. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, 51(5), 685-696.
Edmondson, A. C. (2003). Speaking up in the operating room: How team leaders promote learning in interdisciplinary action teams. Journal of Management Studies, 40, 1419-1452.
Furman, N., & Sibthorp, J. (2010). The Learning and Transfer of Prosocial Behavior in Adventure Education: Effects of a Treatment Curriculum. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, 2(2), 147-151.
Furman, N., & Sibthorp, J. (2011). The transfer of expedition behavior skills from the National Outdoor Leadership School to life post-course. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, 3(2), 87-90.
Furman, N., & Sibthorp, J. (2013). The development of prosocial behavior in adolescents: a mixed methods study from NOLS. Journal of Experiential Education, 37(2),160-175.
Gallagher, W. (1993). The power of place: How our surroundings shape our thoughts, emotions, and actions. New York: Poseidon Press.
Gassner, M. E., & Russell, K. C. (2008). Relative impact of course components at Outward Bound Singapore: a retrospective study of long-term outcomes. Journal of Adventure Education & Outdoor Learning, 8(2), 133-156.
Goldenberg, M., Cummings, J., & Pronsolino, D. (2008). A means-end study of outcome differences of females and males associated with Outward Bound and National Outdoor Leadership School. Research in Outdoor Education, 9, 9–25.
Goldenberg, M., McAvoy, L., & Klenosky, D. B. (2005). Outcomes from the components of an Outward Bound experience. Journal of Experiential Education, 28(2), 123-146.
Goldenberg, M., & Soule, K. E. (2015). A four-year follow-up of means-end outcomes from outdoor adventure programs. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, 15(4), 284-295.
Goldenberg, M., & Soule, K. (2011). How group experience affects outcomes from NOLS programs: A means-end investigation. The Journal of Experiential Education, 33(4), 393-397.
Goldenberg, M., & Soule, K. E. (2014). Examining the Role of Gender in Longitudinal Adventure Education Outcome Attainment. Journal of Unconventional Parks, Tourism & Recreation Research (JUPTRR), 5(2), 23-28.
Goldenberg, M., & Soule, K. E. (2014). Outcomes of hiking the pacific crest trail. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, 6(1), 44-54.
Hammitt, W. E., Cole, D. N., & Monz, C. A. (2015). Wildland recreation: Ecology and management. John Wiley & Sons.
Heintzman, P. (2010). Nature-based recreation and spirituality: A complex relationship. Leisure Sciences, 32(1), 72-89.
Heintzman, P., & Mannell, R. C. (2003). Spiritual functions of leisure and spiritual well-being: Coping with time pressure. Leisure Sciences 25(2-3), 207-230.
Hendee, J. C. (1974). A multiple-satisfaction approach to game management. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 104-113.
Hendee, J. C., Stankey, G., & Lucas, R. C. (1978). Wilderness Management: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture; U. S. Forest Service.
Hendee, J. C., Gale, R. P., & Catton, W. R. (1971). A typology of outdoor recreation activity preferences. The Journal of Environmental Education, 3(1), 28-34.
Pearlman Hougie, D. (2010). Can Family Outdoor and Countryside Recreation Help Reconnect Children with the Outdoors?: Affluent Middle Childhood Perspectives of Countryside Recreation in the United Kingdom. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education and Leadership. 2(3), 217-244.
Houge, S., Hodge, K., & Boyes, M. (2010). The Phasic Nature of Flow in High Risk Recreation. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, 2(2), 159-162.
Houge Mackenzie, S., & Kerr, J. H. (2016). Positive motivational experience over a three-day outdoor adventure trek in Peru. Journal of Adventure Education and Outdoor Learning, 1-14.
Hutson, G., & Bailey, L. (2008). Awakening place awareness during a 30-day wilderness leadership program. International Journal of Wilderness, 14(3), 23-28.
Inkelas, K. K., Soldner, M., Longerbeam, S. D., & Leonard, J. B. (2008). Differences in student outcomes by types of living–learning programs: The development of an empirical typology. Research in higher education, 49(6), 495-512.
Jostad, J. M. (2013). Group identification and group homogeneity: A case study of NOLS courses. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, 5(2), 128-130.
Kaplan, R. (1984). Wilderness perception and psychological benefits: An analysis of a continuing program. Leisure Sciences, 6(3), 271-290.
Kaplan, R., & Kaplan, S. (1989). The experience of nature: A psychological perspective. Cambridge University Press.
Kellert, S. R. (1998). A National Study of Outdoor Wilderness Experience. Yale University, New Haven, CT.
Kellert, S. (2005). Building for life: Understanding and designing the human-nature connection. Island Press. Washington DC.
Knopf, R. (1983). Recreation Needs and Behavior in Natural Settings. Behavior and the Natural Environment. I. Altman and J. Wohlwill. NY, Plenum Press. 6, 205-232.
Koecni, V. (2005). The aesthetic trinity: Awe, being moved, thrills. Bulletin of Psychology and the Arts, 5, 27-44.
Korpela, K., Borodulin, K., Neuvonen, M., Paronen, O., & Tyrväinen, L. (2014). Analyzing the mediators between nature-based outdoor recreation and emotional well-being. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 37, 1-7.
Kreske, D. L. (1996). Environmental impact statements: A practical guide for agencies, citizens, and consultants. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.
Larson, L. R., Whiting, J. W., & Green, G. T. (2011). Exploring the influence of outdoor recreation participation on pro-environmental behaviour in a demographically diverse population. Local Environment, 16(1), 67-86.
Louv, R. (2005). Last child in the woods: Saving our kids from nature deficit disorder. Algonquin Books, Chapel Hill, NC.
Manfredo, M. J., Driver, B. L., & Tarrant, M. A. (1996). Measuring leisure motivation: A meta-analysis of the recreation experience preference scales. Journal of leisure Research, 28(3), 188.
Marchand, G. (2014). Environmental attitudes of students enrolled In adventure programming classes. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, 6(2), 180-182.
Marsh, P. E., & Bobilya, A. J. (2013). Examining backcountry adventure as a spiritual experience. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, 5(1), 74-95.
Maslow, A. H. (1964). Religions, values, and peak-experiences (Vol. 35). Columbus: Ohio State University Press.
McAvoy, L. E. O., Holman, T., Goldenberg, M., & Klenosky, D. (2006). Wilderness and persons with disabilities. International Journal of Wilderness, 12(2), 23-31.
McKenzie, M. (2003). Beyond “the Outward Bound process:” Rethinking student learning. Journal of Experiential Education, 26(1), 8-23.
Mirkin, B. J. (2014). Group Social Climate and Individual Peer Interaction: Exploring Complex Relationships on Extended Wilderness Courses. Research in Outdoor Education, 12(1), 58-79.
Moore, R. L., & Driver, B. L. (2005). Introduction to outdoor recreation: Providing and managing natural resource-based opportunities. State College, PA: Venture Publishing, Inc.
National Advisory council on Regional Recreation Planning (1959). A User-Resource Recreation Planning Method. Loomis, CA, The Council: 80.
Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission (1962). Summary Report.Washington DC: 246.
Ommundsen, Y., Roberts, G. C., Lemyre, P. N., & Miller, B. W. (2006). Parental and coach support or pressure on psychosocial outcomes of pediatric athletes in soccer. Clinical journal of sport medicine, 16(6), 522-526.
Outdoor Industry Association (OIA) 2016. Retrieved from: https://outdoorindustry.org January 8, 2017.
Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission (1962). Summary Report. Washington DC: 246.
Paisley, K., Furman, N., Sibthorp, J., & Gookin, J. (2008). Student learning in outdoor education: A case study from the National Outdoor Leadership School. Journal of Experiential Education, 30(3), 201-222.
Pohl, S. L., Borrie, W. T., & Patterson, M. E. (2000). Women, wilderness, and everyday life: A documentation of the connection between wilderness recreation and women's everyday lives. Journal of Leisure Research, 32(4), 415-434.
Powell, R.B., Brownlee, M.T.J., Kellert, S. R. & Ham, S.H. (2012) From awe to satisfaction: Immediate affective responses to the Antarctic tourism experience. Polar Record, 48(2), 145-156.
Powell, R.B., Kellert, S. R., & Ham, S.H. (2009) Interactional theory and the sustainable nature-based tourism experience. Society and Natural Resources, 22(8), 761-776.
Powell, R.B., Ramshaw, G.P., Ogletree, S.S., & Krafte, K. (2016) Can heritage resources highlight changes to the natural environment caused by climate change? Evidence from the Antarctic tourism experience. Journal of Heritage Tourism, 11(1) 71-87.
Preskill, H. S., & Torres, R. T. (1999). Evaluative inquiry for learning in organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Reynolds, P. C., & Braithwaite, D. (2001). Towards a conceptual framework for wildlife tourism. Tourism Management, 22(1), 31-42.
Salkind, N. J. (2009). Exploring research (7th ed.): Pearson.
Schmalz, D. L., Kerstetter, D. L., & Kleiber, D. A. (2011). An evaluation of developmental outcomes at a free-choice oriented girls summer camp. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, 3(1), 53-69.
Sellars, R. W. (1997). Preserving Nature in the National Parks. New Haven, CT, Yale University Press.
Skibins, J.C., & Powell, R.B. (2013) Conservation Caring: Measuring the influence of zoo visitors’ connection to wildlife on pro-conservation behaviors. Zoo Biology, 32 (5) 528-540.
Skibins, J.C., Powell, R.B., & Stern, M.J. (2012) Exploring empirical support for interpretation’s best practices. Journal of Interpretation Research, 17(1), 25-44.
Skibins, J.C., Powell, R.B. & Hallo, J.C. (2013) Charisma and conservation: Charismatic megafauna’s influence on safari and zoo tourists’ pro-conservation behaviors. Biodiversity and Conservation, 22 (4), 959-982.
Stern, M.J., Powell, R.B., & Hill, D. (2014) Environmental education research in the new millennium: What do we measure and what have we learned? Environmental Education Research, 20(5), 581-611.
Stuntz, C. P., & Weiss, M. R. (2009). Achievement goal orientations and motivational outcomes in youth sport: The role of social orientations. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 10(2), 255-262.
Taniguchi, S. T., Freeman, P. A., & Richards, A. L. (2005). Attributes of meaningful learning experiences in an outdoor education program. Journal of Adventure Education & Outdoor Learning, 5(2), 131-144.
Thapa, B., & Graefe, A. (2003). Forest recreationists and environmentalism. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 21(1), 75–103.
Tsaur, S. H., Yen, C. H., & Hsiao, S. L. (2013). Transcendent experience, flow and happiness for mountain climbers. International Journal of Tourism Research, 15(4), 360-374.
Vagias, W. & Powell, R.B. (2010) Backcountry visitors’ Leave No Trace attitudes. International Journal of Wilderness, 16(3), 21-27.
Vagias, W., Powell, R.B., Moore, D.D., & Wright, B.A. (2014) Predicting behavioral intentions to comply with recommended Leave No Trace practices. Leisure Sciences, 38(5), 439-45.
Whittington, A. (2006). Challenging girls' constructions of femininity in the outdoors. Journal of Experiential Education, 28(3), 205-221.
Whittington, A. (2011). Life after the river: long-term impacts of girls' participation in an adventure program. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education and Leadership, 3(1), 40-52.
Whittington, A., & Budbill, N. (2013). Breaking the mold: Impacts of adventure education on girls. Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, 5(1), 37-53.
Widmer, M. A., Duerden, M. D., & Taniguchi, S. T. (2014). Increasing and Generalizing Self-Efficacy: The Effects of Adventure Recreation on the Academic Efficacy of Early Adolescents. Journal of Leisure Research, 46(2), 165-183.
Wildland Research Center-University of California (1962). Wilderness and Recreation—A Report on Resources, Values, and Problems. Washington, DC, U.S. Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission: 352.
Willemyns, M., Gallois, C., & Callans, V. J. (2003). Trust me, I'm your boss: Trust and power in supervisor-supervisee communication. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 14(1), 117-127.
Williams, K., & Harvey, D. (2001). Transcendent experience in forest environments Journal of Environmental Psychology, 21(3), 249-260.
Sagamore Publishing LLC (hereinafter the “Copyright Owner”)
Journal Publishing Copyright Agreement for Authors
PLEASE REVIEW OUR POLICIES AND THE PUBLISHING AGREEMENT, AND INDICATE YOUR ACCEPTANCE OF THE TERMS BY CHECKING THE ‘AGREE TO THE TERMS OF THIS COPYRIGHT NOTICE’ CHECKBOX BELOW.
I understand that by submitting an article to Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, I am granting the copyright to the article submitted for consideration for publication in Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership to the Copyright Owner. If after consideration of the Editor of the Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, the article is not accepted for publication, all copyright covered under this agreement will be automatically returned to the Author(s).
THE PUBLISHING AGREEMENT
Assignment of Copyright
I hereby assign to the Copyright Owner the copyright in the manuscript I am submitting in this online procedure and any tables, illustrations or other material submitted for publication as part of the manuscript in all forms and media (whether now known or later developed), throughout the world, in all languages, for the full term of copyright, effective when the article is accepted for publication.
Reversion of Rights
Articles may sometimes be accepted for publication but later be rejected in the publication process, even in some cases after public posting in “Articles in Press” form, in which case all rights will revert to the Author.
Retention of Rights for Scholarly Purposes
I understand that I retain or am hereby granted the Retained Rights. The Retained Rights include the right to use the Preprint, Accepted Manuscript, and the Published Journal Article for Personal Use and Internal Institutional Use.
All journal material is under a 12 month embargo. Authors who would like to have their articles available as open access should contact Sagamore-Venture for further information.
In the case of the Accepted Manuscript and the Published Journal Article, the Retained Rights exclude Commercial Use, other than use by the author in a subsequent compilation of the author’s works or to extend the Article to book length form or re-use by the author of portions or excerpts in other works.
Published Journal Article: the author may share a link to the formal publication through the relevant DOI.
- The Article I have submitted to the journal for review is original, has been written by the stated author(s) and has not been published elsewhere.
- The Article was not submitted for review to another journal while under review by this journal and will not be submitted to any other journal.
- The Article contains no libelous or other unlawful statements and does not contain any materials that violate any personal or proprietary rights of any other person or entity.
- I have obtained written permission from copyright owners for any excerpts from copyrighted works that are included and have credited the sources in the Article.
- If the Article was prepared jointly with other authors, I have informed the co-author(s) of the terms of this Journal Publishing Agreement and that I am signing on their behalf as their agent, and I am authorized to do so.