Which Lifelong Activities Are Held in Highest Regard by Physical Education Stakeholders in Michigan: Can Stakeholders Agree? A Delphi Study


  • Ray Allen Central Michigan University
  • Marcia J. Mackey Central Michigan University
  • Benjamin R. Rollenhagen Central Michigan University




Physical Education Curriculum Delphi Program Design


The purpose of this study was to identify what lifelong activities stakeholders agree upon as most important to include in physical education programs. Little research has been conducted regarding which lifelong activities are most important to include in the curriculum and if there is consensus in priorities across program stakeholders. Consensus among stakeholders at the local level would contribute to program support and guide program planning. Three hundred fifty subjects were drawn from 15 school districts across Michigan and five professional organizations with a stake in physical education programming. Subjects completed three rounds of a Delphi study, in which they shared opinions and rated the relative importance of lifelong activities. Swimming, jogging/power walking, and strength training were the highest rated of the 64 activities that received a rating in the final round. The mean dispersion of ratings by stakeholders decreased on 82 of the 86 activities, demonstrating an increase in agreement as a result of the Delphi study. The rank order of activities based on mean ratings also changed during the study. The decrease in the dispersion in ratings and the change in rank order based on ratings support the use of the Delphi as a consensus-building tool. 

Author Biographies

Ray Allen, Central Michigan University

Associate ProfessorDepartment of Physical Education and Sport

Marcia J. Mackey, Central Michigan University

Associate ProfessorDepartment of Physical Education and Sport

Benjamin R. Rollenhagen, Central Michigan University

Coordinator of PED/Sports Instruction ProgramDepartment of Physical Education and Sport